Diagnostic Radiography, BSc (Hons)

Programme Overview
Diagnostic radiography involves the use of sophisticated equipment and techniques to produce medical images of the human body. These images are typically used to diagnose or treat illness or injury. Diagnostic radiographers are integral to healthcare teams. They use their professional training to deliver a sensitive and patient-centred healthcare service. The equipment that radiographers use includes X-ray, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Other more specialised settings in which radiographers may work in include fluoroscopy, mammography, nuclear medicine, and interventional radiology. Besides caring for patients, radiographers are also actively involved in other areas of healthcare such as research, education and administration.

The Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Diagnostic Radiography is a four-year, direct honours degree programme that prepares graduates for the role of a professional radiographer. It is the only diagnostic radiography programme among autonomous universities in Singapore. The curriculum is developed in close consultation with the radiography industry to ensure relevance and graduates’ employability. The programme will be seeking accreditation by the Allied Health Professions Council (AHPC), thus enabling graduates to practise as professional radiographers in Singapore.

Curriculum
The SIT Diagnostic Radiography program focuses on applied learning and provides a high-quality, practice-oriented education in the following areas:

  • Health and behavioural sciences. Broad-based knowledge in health and behavioural sciences, including anatomy, physiology, patient care and safety, psychology, health systems, professionalism, interprofessional education, and change management.
     
  • Radiological science and technology. Professional knowledge in radiological science and technology, including radiation physics, radiobiology, radiation protection, radiological anatomy, radiological informatics, medical imaging technology and processing.
     
  • Radiography practice. Professional knowledge in different areas of radiography practice, including general radiography, fluoroscopy, angiography, CT, MRI, ultrasound, breast imaging, nuclear and hybrid imaging. This component also includes an undergraduate honours thesis that emphasises scientific enquiry and evidence-informed radiography practice.

Career Opportunities
Suitably qualified radiographers are in high demand in Singapore. Besides working in the hospitals, radiographers also work in many public and private settings, including community hospitals, medical centres and clinics.

Eligibility and Exemption

SIT selects candidates for this programme using a holistic approach that considers passion and suitability for the profession, academic achievement, co-curricular involvement and medical clearance. Short-listed candidates will be invited for Multiple-Mini Interviews, consisting of different stations which assess different important attributes such as communication skills.

Listed below are the relevant admission criteria:

A-Level Prerequisites:

  • A good pass in two of the following H2 subjects: Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics.

Diploma Prerequisites:

  • An approved full-time diploma from a polytechnic in Singapore. Module exemption will be considered on a case-by-case basis.
  • Obtain a minimum of C6 for English for GCE O Level.

International Baccalaureate Prerequisites:

  • A good pass in two of the following: HL Biology, HL Chemistry, HL Physics and HL Mathematics.

NUS High School Diploma Prerequisites:

  • A good pass in two of the following: Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics.

Shortlisted applicants will be required to sit for a Multiple Mini Interview held on one of these dates as scheduled by the administrator.

MMI dates

25 March 2017 – For NSF only

1 April 2017 – For NSF only

3 – 5, 8 April 2017

10 – 13 April 2017

17 – 22 April 2017

Selection shall be solely within the discretion of the University and will depend upon the number of places available in the programme.

MODULE SYNOPSIS

Year 1 (Trimester 1)
HSC1001 Anatomy and Physiology 1

The module is designed to equip students with knowledge of the structure and function of the human body and an understanding of the interrelationship among different body systems. The topics include structure and function of cell, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, blood and immune system. Gross anatomy of the limbs, pelvis and chest including general embryology and development of limbs will be covered in this module with emphasis on musculoskeletal structure and function.

HSC1003 Health Systems - Singapore's Perspectives

The World Health Organization (WHO)’s framework of a health system includes resource generation, stewardship, funding and provisioning. The goal of a health system is to improve health, respond to expectations and focus on fairness in financial contribution. In this module, the Singapore health system is described and analyzed within the WHO’s framework. Students will learn to appreciate how policies are developed, health needs identified and met, intersectoral collaborations needed and established, and services organized and evaluated. Through interprofessional studies, they will learn about the needs of patients and the roles of different professions in the health systems addressing those needs.

HSC1004 Psychological and Sociological Perspectives for Health Sciences

Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behaviour. In this module students will attain an understanding of key psychological concepts. Students will appreciate how psychological theories and research relate to health, illness, and healthcare. Sociology is the study of society, relationships, and social behaviour. Students will consider key sociological concepts and research to broaden their understanding of health, illness, and healthcare as they relate to the individual, family, and society.

HSC1101 Patient Care and Safety

Foundation concepts and competencies in assessment and evaluation of the patient for service delivery. Psychological and physical needs of the patient and family and factors affecting treatment outcome. Infection control procedures, routine and emergency care procedures. Role in patient education. Human factors, quality assurance.

Communication in patient care. Health-illness continuum, developing professional attitudes, communication (including interviewing, observation and recording), age- and generation-specific communication, psychological considerations. Patient-family interactions. Patient identification, aspects of treatment procedures, holistic approaches to family members and friends.

Patient rights and responsibilities (including confidentiality). Patient transfer. Body mechanics, movement techniques, fall prevention, patient positions, patient safety and immobilization methods, incident reports. Assessment of physical needs. Physical needs of the patient, assessing patient status, physical signs, vital signs, weight, laboratory values, patient chart. Patient examination. Initial assessment, records, general physical examination, selected examinations and procedures, associated equipment and instruments. Care of patients with tubes, lines, catheters and other devices. Purpose, types and special precautions, procedures and special precautions. Patient education. Needs assessment, educational methods, implementation and evaluation, treatment procedures, medical imaging procedures, documentation.

Infection control. Cycle of infection, prevention of transmission, medical and surgical asepsis, practical asepsis, isolation techniques and communicable diseases, procedures for isolation patient, precautions for the compromised patient (reverse isolation). Environmental and workplace safety.

Medications and administration. Role of the radiographer and radiation therapist, medication information, medication administration.

Medical emergencies. Emergency equipment, latex reactions, shock, signs and symptoms and medical intervention for selected emergencies. Basic cardiac life support.

Foundation concepts and competencies in assessment and evaluation of the patient for service delivery. Psychological and physical needs of the patient and family and factors affecting treatment outcome. Infection control procedures, routine and emergency care procedures. Role in patient education. Human factors, quality assurance.

Communication in patient care. Health-illness continuum, developing professional attitudes, communication (including interviewing, observation and recording), age- and generation-specific communication, psychological considerations. Patient-family interactions. Patient identification, aspects of treatment procedures, holistic approaches to family members and friends.

Patient rights and responsibilities (including confidentiality). Patient transfer. Body mechanics, movement techniques, fall prevention, patient positions, patient safety and immobilization methods, incident reports. Assessment of physical needs. Physical needs of the patient, assessing patient status, physical signs, vital signs, weight, laboratory values, patient chart. Patient examination. Initial assessment, records, general physical examination, selected examinations and procedures, associated equipment and instruments. Care of patients with tubes, lines, catheters and other devices. Purpose, types and special precautions, procedures and special precautions. Patient education. Needs assessment, educational methods, implementation and evaluation, treatment procedures, medical imaging procedures, documentation.

Infection control. Cycle of infection, prevention of transmission, medical and surgical asepsis, practical asepsis, isolation techniques and communicable diseases, procedures for isolation patient, precautions for the compromised patient (reverse isolation). Environmental and workplace safety.

Medications and administration. Role of the radiographer and radiation therapist, medication information, medication administration.

Medical emergencies. Emergency equipment, latex reactions, shock, signs and symptoms and medical intervention for selected emergencies. Basic cardiac life support.

Foundation concepts and competencies in assessment and evaluation of the patient for service delivery. Psychological and physical needs of the patient and family and factors affecting treatment outcome. Infection control procedures, routine and emergency care procedures. Role in patient education. Human factors, quality assurance.

Communication in patient care. Health-illness continuum, developing professional attitudes, communication (including interviewing, observation and recording), age- and generation-specific communication, psychological considerations. Patient-family interactions. Patient identification, aspects of treatment procedures, holistic approaches to family members and friends.

Patient rights and responsibilities (including confidentiality). Patient transfer. Body mechanics, movement techniques, fall prevention, patient positions, patient safety and immobilization methods, incident reports. Assessment of physical needs. Physical needs of the patient, assessing patient status, physical signs, vital signs, weight, laboratory values, patient chart. Patient examination. Initial assessment, records, general physical examination, selected examinations and procedures, associated equipment and instruments. Care of patients with tubes, lines, catheters and other devices. Purpose, types and special precautions, procedures and special precautions. Patient education. Needs assessment, educational methods, implementation and evaluation, treatment procedures, medical imaging procedures, documentation.

Infection control. Cycle of infection, prevention of transmission, medical and surgical asepsis, practical asepsis, isolation techniques and communicable diseases, procedures for isolation patient, precautions for the compromised patient (reverse isolation). Environmental and workplace safety.

Medications and administration. Role of the radiographer and radiation therapist, medication information, medication administration.

Medical emergencies. Emergency equipment, latex reactions, shock, signs and symptoms and medical intervention for selected emergencies. Basic cardiac life support.

Year 1 (Trimester 2)
HSC1002 Anatomy and Physiology 2

This module extends the knowledge gained in Anatomy and Physiology 1, and includes structures and functions of the endocrine system, gastrointestinal tract, renal system and the reproductive system. Gross anatomy of the spine (cervical, thoracic and lumbar) and neurocranium (skull) will be covered in this module with emphasis on the musculoskeletal structures and functions of the spinal vertebrae.

HSC1102 Radiation Physics and Dosimetry

This module provides the foundation physics knowledge relevant to medical radiation and imaging. Topics include the structure of matter, properties of radiation, radioactivity and decay, and interactions of ionizing radiation with matter. This module also segues into x-ray instrumentation by introducing x-ray production.

HSC1105 Principles of Radiographic Practice

This module focuses on the science and equipment involved in the production of optimal radiographic images. It follows the x-ray beam from creation to detection and image formation. It also discusses factors affecting image quality, optimal imaging standards, problem-solving techniques for image evaluation, and quality assurance. These principles are then extended to discuss principles of operation of equipment for fluoroscopy, mobile radiography and angiography.

HSC1005 Research - Critical Appraisal of Literature

The module will introduce the quantitative and qualitative methodologies in conducting research in the healthcare industry. The module will cover the common types of research design. By relating to scientific literature, different topics such as sampling, generalizability, blinding, effect size, randomization will be introduce weekly. Alongside introducing the basic methodology, this module focuses on getting students search for evidence in the literature from the different database. It aims to develop skills in searching for evidence, understanding research articles and ability to critically appraise published literature. Part the module will also focus on preparing students on academic writing, alongside working on the critical appraisal of literature.

Year 1 (Trimester 3)
DRG1001 Digital Imaging and Processing

This module focuses on the science and equipment involved in the production of optimal radiographic images. It follows the x-ray beam from creation to detection and image formation. It also discusses factors affecting image quality, optimal imaging standards, problem-solving techniques for image evaluation, and quality assurance. These principles are then extended to discuss principles of operation of equipment for fluoroscopy, mobile radiography and angiography.

DRG1002 General Radiographic Practice 1

This module is concerned with imparting an appreciation of digital radiography, and the principles and operation of digital imaging systems. Topics include digital image characteristics, digital detectors, image formation and processing, display and viewing, exposure and scatter control, image evaluation, and quality assurance. The potential impact of digital radiographic systems on patient exposure and methods of practicing the ALARA concept with digital systems will also be discussed.

 

DRG1901 Clinical Radiography Practice 1

TBC

Year 2 (Trimester 1)
HSC1103 Radiobiology and Radiation Protection

Principles of radiation biology. Interactions of radiation with molecules, cells, tissues and body and resultant biophysical events. Factors affecting biological response, including acute and chronic effects of radiation.

Principles of radiation protection and safety for medical radiation professionals. Radiation health and safety requirements of regulatory agencies, accreditation agencies and health care organizations are incorporated.

Introductory cell biology, types of ionizing radiation, sources of medical radiation exposure, specification of radiation quantities, molecular effects of radiation, factors effecting energy transfer, sub-cellular and cellular radiation effects, somatic, genetic and embryonic radiation effects, factors influencing radiation response. Law of Bergonié and Tribondeau, cell survival and recovery, systemic response to radiation, total body irradiation, radiation dose response curves, late effects of radiation, risk estimates.

Justification for radiation protection, potential biological damage of ionizing radiation, dose limits, ALARA, comparable risk, negligible individual dose, sources of radiation, legal and ethical responsibilities. Radiation units of exposure, dose and radioactivity, dose equivalent, radiation detectors. General survey procedures, equipment survey, area survey, regulatory and advisory agencies, radiation safety officer. Requirements for personnel monitoring, methods and types of personnel monitors, records of accumulated dose, effective dose limits, responsibility for radiation protection. Radiation protection design, regulation and advisory recommendations, cardinal principles in protection, emergency procedures. Patient protection.

DRG2001 General Radiographic Practice 2

This module integrates and builds upon the prior topic areas covered such as, anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology; clinical reasoning; patient care; radiation safety and protection and equipment instrumentation. These topics will be revisited in greater breadth and depth specific to the axial skeleton (cervical, thoracic, lumbar spine, skull, facial bones); the pelvic girdle and joints (shoulder, elbow, wrist, hips, knees, ankles).

DRG2902 Clinical Radiography Practice 2

TBC

DRG2002 Healthcare and Radiological Informatics

Radiographic techniques will include basic and advanced positioning skills, exposure factors, and image interpretation. Particular emphasis will be placed on radiological anatomy and pathophysiology, image critique and interpretation where students are expected to recognize normal and abnormal radiological anatomy and common pathological conditions.

Year 2 (Trimester 2)
HSC1104 Radiological and Cross-Sectional Anatomy

Review of normal surface and gross anatomical relationships and organisation. Location and identification of gross anatomical structures in transverse, sagittal and coronal planes. Sectional anatomy of normal anatomical structures and normal variants of the head, brain and neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, spine, musculoskeletal on plain and contrast radiographic, CT and MR images.

HSC2001 Pathophysiology and Pharmacology

This module introduces students to the broad categories of diseases and injuries from a systems approach. The students learn the contemporary knowledge and perspectives on the pathological and abnormal physiological processes that lead to these diseases and injuries, current medical interventions, including surgery and drugs, and associated complications either arising from the disease processes or medical interventions. Students learn the effects of drugs on the biological systems (for instance, interactions between chemicals and biological receptors) and the effects of biological systems on drugs (that is, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of chemicals from biological systems). In addition, students learn to recognize the desired and undesired effects of medication, delivery options, adverse drug reactions that health professionals may observe. The specific roles of these health professionals in communicating adverse reactions and requesting modification in medication delivery to optimize performance and minimize pain will also be discussed.

DRG2003 Radiographic Practice in Specialized Settings

This module integrates and builds upon the prior modules on general radiography and topic areas covered such as, anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology; clinical reasoning; patient care; radiation safety and protection. These topics will be revisited in greater breadth and depth specific to the context of radiographic practice, which are ward, trauma and dental radiography.

Students will be introduced to dental-specific equipment instrumentation, positioning techniques, patient preparation and image critique considerations for dental radiography.

Radiographic techniques will include basic and advanced positioning skills, exposure factors, and image interpretation. Particular emphasis will be placed on radiological anatomy and pathophysiology, image critique and interpretation where students are expected to recognize normal and abnormal radiological anatomy and common pathological conditions.

DRG2903 Clinical Radiography Practice 3

TBC

Year 3 (Trimester 1)
HSC3001 Change Management

Through this module, students will develop understanding related to the challenges and opportunities presented by changes in science, technology, society and organisations. Popular narratives related to the disciplines of science and technology often frame these disciplines as both providing and based upon absolute truth, and formed through singular evolutions. Such narratives present current advancements in science and technology as unproblematic and inevitable processes of evolution. These narratives often fail to take into account alternative narratives and social, political and cultural reasons for the changes, and as such present the reader a view that is at best static and at worst prejudiced. In recent years, scholars have repeatedly demonstrated that science and technology are as fluid and malleable as the people who produce them. Through a focus on themes of “Social Change”, “Organizational Change” and “Individual Change”, the students will develop understanding of how change occurs, why it occurs, and what we can do to anticipate, encourage and manage change. Students will think about and discuss a range of benefits that managing and understanding change may contribute to their lives, the organizations in which they work and society as a whole. Organisational change theories, and concepts regarding resistance to change will be introduced and discussed. Students will develop knowledge of individual change. Through exploring individuals’ strengths and concepts of occupational identity, students will identify individual coping mechanisms that may be employed when dealing with change. Students will discuss the potential ways of becoming a change agent for an organization and society. The students will learn about being a recipient of change as well as an agent / future leader for change.

HSC2002 Research - Methods and Statistics

More advance research methodologies will be introduced in the module. There will be introduction to a range of statistical methods for health scientists including regression and analysis of variance. The students will be introduced to more complex forms of study designs (e.g. mixed methods design), will be taught how to relate skills of critical appraisal to statistical analysis.

DRG3001 Fluoroscopic and Angiographic Practice

This module integrates and builds upon the prior modules on topic areas covered such as, anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology; clinical reasoning; patient care; radiation safety and protection and equipment instrumentation. These topics will be revisited in greater breadth and depth specific to fluoroscopy, OT radiography and angiography.

Students are expected to be familiar with the fluoroscopic procedures performed in each of the three areas, with specific emphasis on patient preparation; pre-/during/post-procedure care (which includes screening for contraindications, instructions, post-procedural advice); contrast media administration and management of anaphylaxis. Students should be trained in resuscitation procedures and BCLS to assist in managing clinical emergencies which may arise during the procedure.

DRG3002 Principles of Advanced Imaging Technology

CT. System components, system types, image acquisition parameters, image formation, modes of operation, image characteristics and artefact, image processing and display. Ultrasound. Properties of sound waves, interaction with matter, image data acquisition, image processing and display, artefact, safety and bio-effects. MRI. Magnetic properties and physics, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI contrast mechanisms and contrast agents, MRI instrumentation, additional acquisition techniques, artefacts, safety and bio-effects. Nuclear medicine. Radioisotope production, radio-pharmaceuticals.

PET. Mechanisms of operation, detector, coincidence detection, time-of-flight, attenuation correction, standardized uptake value (SUV), 2D vs 3D operation, count rate and administered dose considerations, image reconstruction, sensitivity and resolution, technical assessment and equipment purchase recommendations, quality assurance and quality control, artefacts. PET/CT. Mechanisms of operation, quality assurance and quality control, artefacts.

DRG3904 Clinical Radiography Practice 4

TBC

Year 3 (Trimester 2)
DRG3003 CT and MRI

This module integrates and builds upon the prior modules on topic areas covered such as, anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology; clinical reasoning; patient care; radiation safety and protection and equipment instrumentation (advanced modalities). These topics will be revisited considering various body regions in cross sectional imaging.

Students are expected to be familiar with the procedures performed in both CT and MRI, with specific emphasis on patient preparation; pre-/during/post-procedure care (which includes screening for contraindications, instructions, post-procedural advice); contrast media administration and management of anaphylaxis and patient safety measures. Students should be trained in resuscitation procedures and BCLS to assist in managing clinical emergencies which may arise during the procedure.

DRG3801 Honours Thesis Proposal

The aim of the module is to facilitate the students to actively participate in a research process, and in so doing understand the theoretical and practical aspects of research. The module aims to develop a solid appreciation of the value of research in clinical practice. It aims to encourage ongoing critical evaluation in clinical practice.

DRG3905 Clinical Practice in Medical Imaging 1

TBC

HSC3002 Professionalism, Ethics and Legal Aspects of Healthcare

This module explores the conceptualization of professionalism of the health professionals with respect to identity, the work they perform and autonomy. Both occupational and organizational professionalism will be discussed in the context of the new public managerialism. Besides developing theoretical foundation on understanding professionalism, representatives from the respective health professional associations and bodies will be invited to share with students the importance of membership with professional associations and their advocacy work. Students learn various ethical theories from both the West and the East, and incorporate these in case-based learning activities that also stimulate and chart their moral development. Pertinent healthcare laws locally as they relate to the professional and ethical conduct of health care professionals as well as health services provision will be integrated throughout the module. This module is intended for students from various health sciences disciplines so that interprofessional learning about professional and ethical issues can be achieved.

Year 3 (Trimester 3)
DRG3004 Sonography and Mammography

This module integrates and builds upon the prior modules on topic areas covered such as, anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology; clinical reasoning; patient care; radiation safety and protection and equipment instrumentation (advanced modalities). These topics will be revisited considering common ultrasound procedures and breast imaging procedures (mammography and breast ultrasound). Students are expected to be familiar with the procedures performed in ultrasound and breast imaging, including patient preparation; pre-/during/post-procedure care (which includes screening for contraindications, instructions, post-procedural advice); contrast media administration and management of anaphylaxis and patient safety measures. Students should be trained in resuscitation procedures and BCLS to assist in managing clinical emergencies which may arise during the procedure.

DRG4801 Honours Thesis

The aim of the module is to facilitate the students to actively participate in a research process, and in so doing understand the theoretical and practical aspects of research. The module aims to develop a solid appreciation of the value of research in clinical practice. It aims to encourage ongoing critical evaluation in clinical practice.

DRG3906 Clinical Practice in Medical Imaging 2

TBC

Year 4 (Trimester 1)
DRG4801 Honours Thesis

The aim of the module is to facilitate the students to actively participate in a research process, and in so doing understand the theoretical and practical aspects of research. The module aims to develop a solid appreciation of the value of research in clinical practice. It aims to encourage ongoing critical evaluation in clinical practice.

DRG4001 Image Interpretation

Principles of radiological image interpretation. Search strategies to aid in determination of clinical diagnosis. Radiographic appearances of common traumatic processes, foreign bodies, normal variants and common pathologies of the human body in diagnostic imaging. Verbal and written commenting skills and their role in an inter-professional context.

DRG4002 Nuclear Medicine and Hybrid Imaging

This module aims to prepare students with the concept of Professional & Inter-professional education (IPE), to provide patient care in a collaborative team environment. In Inter-professional Education students will work in small interdisciplinary groups designed to model working professional teams. The emphasis is on developing an understanding of other disciplines’ roles and improving awareness of how effective teamwork and communication may benefit the care of patients with chronic diseases.

Through this module, students will be well-prepared to enter collaborative practice inter-professional partnerships for the optimization of patient health outcomes.

DRG4907 Clinical Practice in Medical Imaging 3

TBC

Elective

TBC

Year 4 (Trimester 2)
DRG4801 Honours Thesis

The aim of the module is to facilitate the students to actively participate in a research process, and in so doing understand the theoretical and practical aspects of research. The module aims to develop a solid appreciation of the value of research in clinical practice. It aims to encourage ongoing critical evaluation in clinical practice.

HSC4001 Health Systems - Global Perspectives

This module provides the opportunity for students to expand their knowledge and understanding of contemporary global health issues. The major challenges in global health will be discussed and the management of such addressed. The main focus will be on the four main non-communicable diseases: cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease and diabetes which lead to death in three in five people worldwide. The overall aim is to broaden perspectives on health services development, provisioning and delivery, as well as factors that contribute to strengthening the health systems of developing and developed countries.

HSC4002 Interprofessional and Professional Issues for Entry into Practice

This module aims to prepare students with the concept of Professional & Inter-professional education (IPE), to provide patient care in a collaborative team environment. In Inter-professional Education students will work in small interdisciplinary groups designed to model working professional teams. The emphasis is on developing an understanding of other disciplines’ roles and improving awareness of how effective teamwork and communication may benefit the care of patients with chronic diseases. Through this module, students will be well-prepared to enter collaborative practice inter-professional partnerships for the optimization of patient health outcomes.

DRG4908 Clinical Practice in Medical Imaging (Consolidation)

TBC

Elective

TBC

Campus Location
SIT@Dover
SIT@Dover

10 Dover Drive
Singapore 138683